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|Title: ||System Management for Enhancing Production of Mushroom Spawn|
|Authors: ||G, Senthil Kumaran|
|Issue Date: ||2010|
|Citation: ||G. Senthil Kumaran and Meera Pandey, 2010. System Management for Enhancing Production of Mushroom Spawn.National Conference on Production of Quality seeds and planting material – Health Management in Horticultural Crops , New Delhi March 11-14.|
|Abstract: ||The term mushroom spawn has been defined as the vegetative mycelium from a selected mushroom grown on a convenient medium. The spawn comprises mycelium of the mushroom and a supporting medium, which provides nutrition to the fungus during the growth. In other words spawn could be regarded as analogous to the seeds of the higher plants. Tissue culture is the foundation of today’s mushroom spawn industry due to easy handling. Most spawn is made with mycelium from a stored tissue culture. Preparing spawn is highly technical task that is not practical for most mushroom growers to perform; therefore, specialized companies that supply growers with pure culture spawn mostly produce it. However, in some cases, it may be necessary for the growers to produce their own spawn. In such cases, access to cultures (cultivars) with proven productivity is a key component of a successful enterprise.
The modern spawn production involves four essential steps.
Step 1. Generation of the pure, disease free, high yielding culture of mycelium isolated from tissue of the mushroom of interest.
Step 2. Growth and maintenance of the mycelium in enriched agar. The pure cultures are maintained under aseptic conditions in tubes or Petri dishes, in solid medium.
Step 3. Preparation of the inoculum in grains (Mother spawn). The pure mycelium is put in contact with cereal grains, appropriately prepared, in order to colonize the grains while developing the vegetative phase.
Step 4. Mass multiplication of the spawn on grain or other related substrate for the
production of cultivation spawn.
The industrial spawn production system involves the integrated management of purity of the fungus, its environment of growth and its efficient and economical mass multiplication.
a. Biological system :
• Production of pure culture : Pure, disease free,high yielding culture
• Maintenance of the culture : conservation of the pure culture
• Validation of the culture : For commercial agronomic traits
b. Production system : Manual / mechanized mass production of spawn
Which comprises of the following subsystems
• Infrastructure : Buildings and equipments /machinery
• Energy : Optimal utilization of energy
• Water utilization : Optimal utilization of water
• Personnel management : Optimal utilization of labour
The biological system is managed by generating pure cultures of mushroom either by spore culture / tissue culture. These are generated and maintained by a technically qualified person under aseptic environment for years together. Once a mushroom is taken into culture, whether from spores or tissue, the resultant strain can be preserved for decades under normal refrigeration, perhaps centuries under liquid nitrogen Maintenance of pure mycelial cultures is a necessity for ultimate spawn preparation and spawn production. Once a culture is obtained, it is advisable to take note of the appearance of the mycelium, to observe the normal growth patterns of the specific lines. These observations are important so that one will be aware of even the subtlest change that may lead to deleterious effects. A desirable mycelial culture is one that is pure, free of contaminants, of sectoring and of other abnormalities. There is no in-vitro test to determine a stock culture's validity. A series of cropping trials must be conducted on the mycelial stock culture to determine a culture line's value. Mushroom yield, size, color, cap shape and any other desired quality or growth factors are selected and then compared for each culture line.
The production system needs a well designed layout for spawn production laboratory with proper construction. It should provide controlled environment to avoid contamination during the operation. It is so designed to be user and machinery friendly. The raw material storage, cleaning, boiling, sterilization and inoculation are to be done in separate rooms in a well planned manner. The specialized equipments like autoclave, incubator and laminar flow are to be installed with required working space. The IIHR spawn production machinery namely grain cleaner, grain boiler, boiled grain cum chalk powder mixer, bag filler and inoculation machine would also enhance the production capacity with in the limited available time. Spawn production is a highly energy consuming system. It should be managed with the alternative energy systems like solar energy, agricultural waste fuel etc to cut down the electrical energy consumption to make it more environmental friendly. The high water requirement is to be managed by recycling used water through proper micro filters, rain water harvesting and selecting the equipment that requires less water for operation. The efficiency of the persons involved can be improved by adopting mechanization. This would not only ensures the safety of the labours but also reduce the health hazard due to chemical handling. The different unit operations of spawn production should be distributed in such a way that it utilizes less man power in less time.
Since mushroom cultivation is fast emerging as an alternative horticultural crop, the demand for the quality spawn would increase accordingly. A well planned, executed and managed spawn production system would be a highly profitable business venture for many of the entrepreneurs in India as in the case of abroad to meet the increasing demand. The availability of the pure, disease free, high yielding spawn would help many mushroom growers to enhance their production thereby the overall mushroom production would increase in our country. The higher production will also need legislation in terms of quality spawn certification and certification for good spawn production practices which is not yet practiced in India.|
|Appears in Collections:||Agricultural Engineering|
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