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|Title: ||Exploitation of Agro biodiversity for crop improvement in Alliums.|
|Authors: ||R, Veere Gowda|
|Issue Date: ||2010|
|Citation: ||Veere Gowda R. 2010. Exploitation of Agro biodiversity for crop improvement in Alliums. National conference on Horticultural biodiversity for liveliwood, economic development and health, Bangalore, p 46-47.|
|Abstract: ||Alliums are commercially grown for food, processing, export and medicinal use and known for their pungency and flavor due to sulphur derivative compounds, which made them special group of crops having importance in nutrition. Alliums provides cheap and inexpensive source of minerals, vitamins and energy. Lot of scope exists to exploit agro biodiversity in the various species of Alliums. These crops were highly heterozygous, lack uniformity and not cross compatible except in few groups. The variations found in the different species of genus Allium for bulbing and non bulbing. Majority of the bulbing types are commercial crops and non bulbing types are under exploited crops. Multiplier onion, shallot, leek, bunching onion and chives were the under exploited Alliums which can be successfully grown in India. Major Alliums like onion (Allium cepa, L), Garlic (A.sativum), multiplier onion (A.cepa var. aggregatam) and Shallot (A.ascolonicum) and Leek (A. ampeloprasum) have commercial importance. Among bulbing onion, variability exists for bulb colour, shape, size, and weight besides growth attributes. Onion and garlic are most important among bulbing onion. There is demand for improved varieties of different colour shape and size. Genetic improvement is the best way of utilizing these crops. At IIHR, Hessaraghatta, Agro biodiversity has been exploited to develop varieties and F1 hybrids for high bulb yield, qualities, biotic and abiotic stress, export and processing in onion. Varieties and F1 hybrids were developed with different colours like dark red, red, light red, white, yellow; different shapes of bulb like globe, flat globe, oval globe and different sizes like small size onion namely rose onions and common big onion like Bellary onion group as per the requirement of consumer. The important varieties and F1 hybrids developed were Arka Kalyan (dark red, flat globe, big size, tolerant to purple blotch and for Kharif season), Arka Niketan ( light red, oval globe, medium size, good keeping quality and for Rabi season), Arka Pragati ( red, globe, medium size, early and for Rabi and Kharif season), Arka Bindu and Rose 393( dark red (rose), small size, flat globe and suitable for export to Asian countries), Arka Pitamber and YL 444(yellow colour, medium and big size, globe shape and suitable for export to European countries),Arka Ujjwal ( true seed multiplier onion, dark red, big bulb let, oval globe bulblet and suitable for export), Arka Swadista (white colour small size, globe shape, high TSS and dry matter and suitable for fermented preservation), Arka Kirthiman (F1 hybrid, light red, globe, big uniform size and high bulb yield) and Arka Lalima (F1 hybrid, dark red, globe, big uniform size and high bulb yield) Advance breeding lines for purple blotch disease resistance (biotic stress) and soil moisture stress (abiotic stress) with different shape, size, colours have been developed. In garlic variability has been studied for colour, shape, size of bulb and clove to identify good clone for high bulb yield and qualities. The flowering behavior in great headed garlic, the variability for growth and development of chives, bunching onions and crossability among different Allium groups have been studied to exploit different groups of Alliums for biotic, abiotic stresses, high yield and qualities.|
|Appears in Collections:||Vegetable Crops|
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