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|Title: ||Development And Evaluation Of Triploid Seedless Watermelon In India.|
|Authors: ||M, Pitchaimuthu|
O P, Dutta
V S R, Krishna Prasad
K R M, Swamy
|Keywords: ||Water melon|
|Issue Date: ||2010|
|Citation: ||Pitchaimuthu. M, O.P. Dutta, V.S.R.Krishna Prasad and K.R.M. Swamy, 2009. Development And Evaluation Of Triploid Seedless Watermelon In India, 4th International Cucurbitaceous symposium 2009. pp. 82-83|
|Abstract: ||Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Mansf] belonging to family Cucurbitaceae is a diploid (2n=22). The matured fruits of popularly grown regular varieties contain numerous seeds, which are discarded while consuming fruits. Seedless watermelons are commercially advantageous as they either lack seeds or contain small soft rudimentary seeds. The first seedless watermelon was developed by Kihara (1947) in Japan by crossing colchicines induced tetraploids (3n=3x=33) and (2n=22) cultivars. The resultant triploid seeds produced seedless watermelons. In India, watermelon is a cultivated in 20,000 ha, production is 2.55 lakh tones and the productivity is 12.75 mt/ha. Work on induction of polyploidy in watermelon was initiated by Chopra and Swaminathan in 1959. Later Seshadri et al., in 1972 developed the first triploid seedless watermelon “Pusa Bedana’’. This variety had few limitations like poor seed germination, slow maturity and poor triploid seed recovery when their parents a tetraploid and diploid were crossed. Since, there is great demand for triploid seedless watermelon in India, work in this direction was initiated at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) Bangalore, in 1993. cv. Arka Manik (Popular and triple diseases viz., PM,DM and anthracnose resistant variety) the seedlings or seeds were treated with colchicines using different concentrations.
Tetraploids to the tune of 30 % were induced with application of 0.3 % aqueous colchicine solution to watermelon seedlings at cotyledon stage for a period of seven consecutive days under shade. However, 19.25 % of the plants only could be induced when 0.3 % colchicines were applied with lanoline paste to the seedlings at cotyledon stage for a period of twelve days (applied twice in a week). The percentage of induced tetraploids was increased to 80 % in a combination involving pretreatment of seeds with Nitsch medium followed by colchicine at 0.9 % colchicine + 4 % Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) treatment for 4 days using Nitsch medium and subsequent germination at 32 oC. Forty eight per cent of tertaploid seedlings developed good root system when these were allowed to grow in Nitsch medium supplement with 3 mg each of NAA and Kinetin and 600 ppm Gentamycin. The characteristic gigantism was observed in majority of morphological characters in tetraploid and triploid watermelon plants.
During 2005-2008, four triploid seedless watermelon namely, WT-1202 (3x), VAR-TRI-X-PLR (3x), WMX-313 (3x) developed by Syngenta Seeds Pvt. Ltd. and IIHR-TWN-1 (3x) developed by IIHR were evaluated along with two diploid pollinators namely Augusta and Arka Manik for seed germination. Three years data indicated that mean seed germination percent was maximum (83.83 %) in IIHR-TWN-1 followed by WMX-313 with 82.42 %. IIHR-TWN-1 was found promising in terms of high yield and high T.S.S in both open field 10.76 kg/plot area of 9m2 (11.95 t / ha) and T.S.S of 12.23 o brix) and poly house 33.22 kg/ plot area of 6.25 m2 (53.15 t / ha) and T.S.S of 15.5 o Brix) and significantly superior over other triploids over three years. IIHR-TWN-1, fruits are round, light green with dark green stripes. Average fruit weight 4.5 kg with crimson red flesh, crisp texture and superior taste. It has rind thickness of 1.92 cm, which will be useful for long distance transport and longer shelf life.|
|Appears in Collections:||Vegetable Crops|
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