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Title: Annual Report 2008-09
Authors: Director, IIHR, Bangalore
Keywords: Annual
Issue Date: 2009
Citation: Anon, 2009. Annual Report 2008-09, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore
Abstract: The research programmes of the Institute have been focused on ten major thrust areas under which various research activities are being carried out to fulfill the mandate with a multidisciplinary approach in a time bound manner. The focus is to increase the production of horticultural crops by overcoming the major yield barriers. Apart from evolving high yielding varieties and hybrids, importance has been given to conservation of our genetic resources, minimization of yield loss due to biotic and abiotic stresses, reduction of post harvest losses, value addition and input use efficiency. The increasing impact of the environment on horticulture, improvement of the nutritive value and quality of produce, production of horticultural crops round the year, economics of production and marketing and safe production and export promotion have also received due attention in the programmes. The dissemination of technologies and their impact assessment, which are vital for adoption by the farming community, have also been addressed. Management of plant genetic resources During the year an additional 248 accessions of different plant germplasm were added to the available gene pool of the Institute and over 150 accessions were characterized using approved descriptors. In mango, morphological characterization was carried out for 20 accessions as per Bioversity International (IPGRI) descriptor. (The pickling accession Kalakai had very low TSS (7.50 B) while it was high (240 B) in Ramphalya). The evaluation of sixteen unique indigenous pickling mango types collected from Western Ghats and peninsular region indicated that the accessions viz., Dodderi Jeerige, Chansi Appe and Gurumurthy Appe were found suitable for preparation of tender whole mango pickles by standard fermentation and curing method. Physico-chemical characters of different pummelo cultivars revealed that the differences among cultivars for T.S.S were significant and ranged from 6.2 in the cultivar Royal to 9.2 in the cultivar Pink Fleshed. The fruits of the cultivar, Kanapara had the highest ascorbic acid content of 38.3 mg / 100 g of fruit weight. The lowest ascorbic acid content (33.3 mg / 100 g of fruit) recorded in the cultivar Devanahalli. Amongst rambutan selections, maximum number of fruits/ tree was harvested in CHES-29 (2121.0), while highest individual fruit weight was recorded in CHES- 27 (42.5 g) which also recored maximum yield (70.2 Kg/ plant.). Four amaranth germplasm lines were evaluated and maximum total plant weight was recorded was in the range of 255- 258g. Garden pea germplasm lines were evaluated for the confirmation of high temperature tolerance in field conditions. The maximum pod yield 2.69 t/ha was obtained in IIHR 698 followed by IIHR 758 (2.55 t/ha) and IIHR 579 (2.40 t/ha). In IIHR 544 (check) the pod yield was 1.63 t/ha. Pole type vegetable Dolichos bean germplasm were evaluated for pod yield characters and quality attributes. Maximum pod yield was recorded in IIHR 150 and IIHR 159 (576.0 g/plant). Six different pod colors viz., green, light green, purple, purple green, pink and creamy white were observed. Based on the plant and pod characters 20 high yielding lines were selected for further evaluation. One hundred and twenty cowpea germplasm lines collected from Kerala and Orissa was evaluated and all were Vigna sesquipedalis types. Variation was observed for days to 50% flowering; days to pod maturity; pod weight; leaf length; leaf width; pod yield per plant; pod length and pod width; accession IC 471926 was resistant to root rot. Five germplasm lines viz., IC 471928, IC 471933, IC 471950, IC 471955, IIHR 247 were selected for high yield and good pod quality. Twenty four pointed gourd accessions have been evaluated for plant growth and fruiting character, Genotype CHPG-15 recorded highest yield of 7.72 kg / plant. In spine gourd, 26 accessions have been evaluated. Out of 20 lines of ivy gourd evaluated, highest yield per vine was recorded in CHIG-17 (24.2 kg) followed by CHIG-27 (20.3g) and CHIG-12 (20.0kg). Highest number of fruits per vine was recorded in CHIG-27 (1526.8) followed by CHIG-17 (1298.3) and CHIG-12 (1089.3). Among, indigenous ornamentals, flowering occurred under polyhouse conditions in Begonia and Thunbergia. In Jasminum Malbaricum, 35 accessions have been established successfully. Flowering was observed during third week of March. Average number of flowers per cyme ranged from 4 to 30. Forty-four genotypes of Bird of Paradise are being maintained and evaluated for growth, yield and floral characters the maximum inflorescence-length was 83.1 cm with 4.3 cm stem diameter. The forest areas of the Dangs and Valsad, in Gujarat were explored for wild mushroom documentation. A total of 30 species were documented of which Clitocybe gibba and Termitomyces macrocarpus were the predominant edible mushroom of this region. Twelve new Ganoderma isolates collected from different parts of the country were domesticated on sawdust mixed with rice bran (90:10). Two isolates of Schizophyllum sp collected from Andaman were domesticated on rice bran amended sawdust. Fourteen STMS primers, which showed high PIC values, were employed for the genescan analysis of nearly 80 mango cultivars using automated DNA sequencer. The genetic analysis for 14 STMS primers data was generated for a total of 269 mango cultivars from the germplasm collection, using Cervus 3.0 software. The diversity analysis based on Shannon information index was calculated for pickling type IIHR Annual Report 2008-09 6 and table types, showing the presence of similar degree of diversity among these two types. Further, molecular fingerprints have been generated for genotypes of IIHR released varieties of brinjal and chilli using microsatellites, chloroplast DNA primers and AFLP DNA amplification technologies. SSR profiles have been generated for G S Randhawa, Kiran and Nishkant and their parents using six forward and reverse primers in rose. Evolving high yielding varieties/hybrids Twenty mango accessions were evaluated for various characters. The fruit weight ranged from 59 g in Kalakai to 1114 g in Shahjahan. The bisexual flower percentage was worked out for 54 accessions which ranged from 2.95% in Cowasji Patel to 75.45% in Al Fazli. Advanced generation of the hybrid progenies of papaya from the combination Surya x Tainung-1 were evaluated for various characters. The hybrid progeny number 28-5 had desirable fruit quality parameters producing 600 to 800 g fruits with deep pink colour and high TSS (13-14° B) with good keeping quality. Twenty two hybrid seedlings of banana were generated from the cross between Musa acuminata wild AA types and Ney poovan AB type clones to evolve Ney poovan like (Elakki bale) varieties resistant to Fusarium wilt disease. Among the accessions screened against Fusarium wilt disease by artificial inoculation, the hybrid F1 Fu 15 was found to be resistant. On the basis of fruit yield and quality parameters Arka Mridula, Arka Amulya, Allahabad Safeda, Hisar Safeda and Hisar Surkha were identified as guava cultivars suitable for commercial cultivation. In tomato, thirty hybrids were evaluated for yield and fruit quality attributes. Yield per hectare ranged from 36 tons to 84 tons. Hybrid-162 gained entry into national level trials. Ten individual brinjal plant selections were made based on high yield and fruit quality (shiny purple with white stripes). Among eleven advanced cauliflower breeding lines evaluated, IIHR-371 [491g, 18.2 t/ha], IIHR-316-1 [486g, 18.0 t/ha] and IIHR-73-56 [463g, 17 t/ha] performed better. For transferring the male sterility, F1, bc1, bc2, bc3 and bc4 seeds of the crosses made between male sterile germplasm lines namely, IIHR-361, IIHR- 405, IIHR-407, IIHR-408 and the male fertile germplasm and advanced breeding lines were produced for further evaluation. Among the carrot maintainer lines evaluated, the lines MSB-236 and MSB-272 recorded the highest average root weight of 83.33 g each along with good quality traits like smooth skin, self coloured core and deep orange colour. Two watermelon F1 hybrids with high yield and quality fruits were identified which also possessed good keeping and transport qualities. Among ten F1 hybrids tested in okra, OH-8 gave the highest fruit yield of 23.12 t/ha, which differed significantly from rest of the hybrids tested. In rose, Arka Parimala was identified for release by the Institute Varietal Identification Committee for open field cultivation. The variety has yield potential of 80-100 flowers/ plant/year, field tolerant to thrips and black spot and has desired red color and fragrance. Twenty-six Aloe vera lines were evaluated for various growth and yield attributes. Significant differences were observed for plant height, leaf length, leaf width and for number of suckers. Maximum juice content was recorded in IC 112517 (14.75 ml) followed AV-13 (11 ml) and AV-5 (10.25 ml). Coleus hybrid populations raised from eleven different crosses were screened for root traits. Ten selections were made from the hybrid population based on root traits (root diameter, number of tuberous roots, root length, collar diameter) and dry root yield. Among the selections dry tuber yield ranged from 58 to 112 g /plant. Technologies for increasing productivity Longer leaf life span or residence time of mango leaf on the tree of evergreen trees implies decreased photosynthetic rates because of a trade-off between traits that confer persistence and those that maximize instantaneous productivity. The reduced nutrient losses typical of the evergreen strategy can also contribute to a better nutrient conservation in nutrient limited habitats. A close observation of the behaviour of varieties and leaf life span shows that shorter leaf life span varieties appear to be regular bearers while longer leaf life span varieties bear alternatively. Effects of yield regime on fruit quality in wine grape cvs. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon in red variety category, cvs, Sauvignon Blanc and Chenin Blanc in white category were studied. Increasing yield levels from 15 canes with single or double bunches/cane to more than 80 canes with single or double bunches/cane resulted in change in the fruit quality. Creating varying light regimes in the inter row spaces with different shade nets could not influence the fruit quality of Flame Seedless; especially in the development of skin colour. The results obtained from the trial ‘Kaveri’ variety grafted on yellow passion fruit indicated the superiority of Tatura trellis training systems. DRIS ratio norms for boron were developed and prepared for papaya, guava and sapota. The DRIS ratio norms for boron developed for papaya indicated that B/N ratio was 20.74, B/ P was 128.80 and that of B/K was 11.04. The Ca (Ca/B) and Mg (Mg/B) ratios were 0.127 and 0.044 respectively. Among the micronutrients, the important ratios were Fe/B 2.72, B/ Mn (0.514), B/Zn (0.886) and Cu/B 2.777 for papaya. Investigations to assess whether Erwinia gets introduced in banana tissue cultures through healthy field suckers indicated that the chance of such introduction was quite remote. The pathogen did not survive in covert form in tissue cultures. In hybrid seed production of chilli cv. Arka Harita by hand pollination, foliar sprays of ascorbic acid 50 ppm twice, at the onset of flowering and 10 days thereafter, on CGMS lines alone resulted in highest crossing efficiency (7.32g hybrid seed yield per hour of crossing compared to 3.51g in control). Minimization of yield losses due to diseases Breeding for disease resistance: Eighty five F2 hybrids of pomegranate were screened under epiphytic conditions for reaction to bacterial blight. Among them 80 plants were susceptible. Under green house conditions, 230 hybrids were 7 artificially inoculated with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae. Out of them, 199 plants were susceptible to highly susceptible, 25 plants were resistant to moderately resistant, whereas 15 plants were free from symptoms. These plants will be reinoculated to confirm the results. In tomato, two lines (BC1F7), LBER-38-7-4-27 and TLBER-7- 4-11-34 with triple resistance to early blight, ToLCV and BW were identified. In capsicum, among the fifteen advanced breeding lines evaluated, CPMR 47 X 9852-140 showed maximum yield potential of 445g fresh yield/ plant with PDI value of 10.1 for powdery mildew compared to the susceptible check, Arka Mohini with an yield of 218g/ plant and 83.11 PDI value. Breeding for resistance to chilli murda complex resulted in a line from F7 population viz., VR14XVN2-4/8 which was tolerant to thrips incidence and also showed resistance to CVMV and tolerant to CMV with an yield potential of 347g fresh yield/ plant. Three advanced lines of onion namely PBR-257, PBR-272 and PBR-355 showed combined resistance to purple blotch, basal rot and white rot diseases. Six-advance breeding lines of cowpea resistant to rust were obtained from the crosses involving Arka Suman, Arka Samrudhi, Pusa Komal, VS 389 and IIHR 157. Two of those lines IIHR-8 and IIHR16 with high pod yield were proposed for multi location testing under AICRP (VC) during 27th Group meeting. A RAPD marker OPP730 associated with resistance to mung bean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) in French bean line IC- 525260 was identified. In okra, 25 and 6 advanced lines of interspecific crosses with A. tetraphyllus (IIHR-1) and with A. callei (IIHR-228), recorded no incidence of yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) respectively. The susceptible check Ac-1686 recorded a disease incidence of 48.41% and Arka Anamika recorded 35.29%. Biotechnology: Permission for RCGM trials for transgenic stabilized line of watermelon resistant to bud necrosis virus was granted by IBSC. Collection of required quantity of seeds for strip plot trials was done. Homozygous transgenic plants of tomato resistant to PBNV have been obtained. Transgenic plants of Arka Saurabh and Arka Meghali with replicase gene for resistance to TLCV raised in T3 generation were evaluated for disease resistance. Upon challenging three times with viruliferous flies 100% of plants exhibited resistance to TLCV. All non-transgenic control plants were susceptible upon challenging. Two homozygous lines of tomato cv Arka Vikas transformed with Trichoderma harzianum chitinase gene for resistance to Alternaria solani in T2 generation have been identified. Eight primary (T0) transgenic plants of chilli cv G-4 transformed with Trichoderma harzianum chitinase confirmed for the presence of transgene have been obtained. A total of 79 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates representing all mango- growing areas in India were collected and characterized based on morphological, species- specific PCR and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of r DNA Minimization of yield losses due to insect pests and nematodes Breeding for insect tolerance/resistance: A promising stem fly tolerant line in French bean viz., IC 525235 X Arka Anoop- (brown seeded) with 30 % mortality and pest incidence of 7.67 %, stabilized for flower color, pod shape and plant type has been developed. Organic based integrated pest management: Pongamia oil followed by neem oil both @ 0.2 % resulted in good synergism with imidacloprid (0.5 ml/l) for the management of thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis damage on chilli. Pongamia oil 0.2 % was found to be highly synergistic with acephate by recording only 1.75 damage rating followed by neem oil combination with 1.91 damage rating. For management of thrips, S. dorsalis on rose under polyhouse conditions, neem oil showed highest synergistic action with 22.58 % increased mortality over the chemical (70.54%) followed by pongamia oil with 20.02%. Compatibility of new insecticides and fungicides: There was no significant difference in the efficacy of insecticides (imidacloprid and carbaryl) alone and in combination with fungicides (tridemorph and hexaconazole) against mango hoppers and powdery mildew in cv ‘Banginapalli’. Mixing of insecticides (acephate and fipronil) and fungicides (chlorothalonil and zineb) did not affect the efficacy of former against control of onion thrips. Use of insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid and fipronil) and fungicide (triadimefon) together did not affect their bioefficacy in controlling chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis and powdery mildew respectively. Management of nematodes: Nematode management in banana, carrot, tuberose and galdiaoli using single or combination of biopesticides has been standardized. Cost : benefit ratio calculated for the additional cost of the biopesticides and additional returns accrued by the application of the bio-pesticide has been worked out. Biotechnology: The expression of Cry2A Bt protein in planta was done by using a qualitative dot-ELISA and PCR analysis in T0 transgenic brinjal plants cv Arka Keshav developed against shoot and fruit borer. A method was identified to screen the transformed regenerants for the expression of Bt protein and identify the positive plants for further stages. A simple method of in vitro bioassay of Leucinodes orbonalis was developed. Molecular markers were used to identify various thrips vectors such as Scirtothrips dorsalis, Frankliniella schultzei, Thrips palmi & T. tabaci. PCR methodology was used to identify intra species differences of T. tabaci and the same was attempted for S. dorsalis and F. schultzei.‘ Sustaining productivity under abiotic stress In mango, among the various soil conservation structures full moon practice was found to conserve highest soil moisture during the dry spell periods. High activities of antioxidative enzymes in roots were associated with salinity tolerance of Dogridge rootstock in grapes by the possible Executive summary IIHR Annual Report 2008-09 8 regulation of salinity induced oxidative stress in roots. The xylem poles in the roots were more in number and closely packed in Dogridge and Salt Creek while in St George these were widely packed. In tomato, three individual plant selections (IPS) viz, Arka Meghali x RF4A-BC1F4-8-7-4 (2.40kg/plant), Arka Meghali X RF4A-BC1F4-6-4-20 (2.25kg/ plant) and PKM-1x RF4A-BC1F4-2-20-1 (2.00kg/plant) from a total of twenty-five BC1F4 progenies derived from different cross combinations performed better for tolerance to moisture stress under field condition. In another set, three plant selections viz, 15SBSB X RF4A-54-23 (3.00kg/plant) 15SBSB X RF4A-52-22 (2.35kg/plant) and15SBSB X RF4A-14-7 (2.30kg/plant) from a total of 14 advanced F4 progenies of a cross between 15SBSB X RF4A performed better for moisture tolerance under field conditions. Two lines from advanced F8 population of chilli viz., EG132XVN2-3/7 and EG132XVN2- 10/8 were found to have higher WUE ranging from (0.80 to 0.90 μ mol Co2/ mol H2O). Promising five individual plant selections of Capsicum viz., CPMR15XPBC843 (CHT1), CPMR15XPBC848 (CHT3), CPMR28XPBC848 (CHT5), CPMR35X PBC843 (CHT 8) & CPMR59XPBC848 (CHT 18) from advanced F6 population for heat tolerance were selected for further evaluation. Three best performing lines of onion from twenty four F6 advanced generation lines developed by crossing tolerant and susceptible lines namely ST-154 wilt index 2.5.; ST-46 wilt index 2.75 and ST-49 wilt index 3.0 were selected. A promising line of French bean with minimum cell membrane injury from F4 population of the crosses between IC 525224 (heat tolerant) and IC 525239 was selected for further analysis. The plants of tomato hybrid. Laxmi were grafted on three tomato species L. cheesmanii, L. pimpinellifolium and L. esculentum (RF4A) and used as autografts. Among the grafts, the plants grafted on L. pimpinellifolium and L. esculentum (RF4A) had higher photosynthetic rate and higher dry matter accumulation under stress. Autografted plants also had higher photosynthetic rate (18.2 –23.8 μmol m-2 s-1) than ungrafted plants (17.6 μmol m-2 s-1).The greater high temperature tolerance in capsicum cv Arka Gaurav was associated with higher proline content. There was an induction in 60, 70 and 90 KDa heat shock proteins (Hsps) in the leaves under high temperature in both the cultivars and the induction 70 and 90 KDa Hsps was more prominent in cv. Arka Gaurav than in Arka Mohini. Glycine betaine treated plants of chilli cv Arka Harita recorded higher per plant yield as compared to Pusa Jwala under water stress. Treatment with gycine betaine on water stressed onion cultivars Arka Kalyan and Arka Niketan influenced the RWC, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and osmotic adjustment.. All these parameters translated into an yield increase of 14-19.6% in seed treated plants and 12- 18% in foliar sprayed plants of onion. Minimization of post harvest losses Storage life of mangoes could be extended to 5 weeks by MA-packing in micro-perforated D-955 film and storing at 8°C. Exposing mature fruits of sapota (cv. Cricket Ball) to 500 ppb 1-MCP for 18 hours delayed the ripening rate and extended the shelf life to 12 days at RT (22-30°C). The storage life of tomato fruits (harvested at breaker-turning stage) was extended upto 6 weeks at 12-13°C by integrated treatment of pre-harvest spray of iprodion + carbendazim (0.2%) followed by post harvest treatment with 1-MCP (250 ppb). Bitter gourd (hybrid Vishesh) fruits harvested at 12 days maturity remained green and the storage life was extended to 14 days by post harvest treatment with 1-MCP (250 ppb) and packaging in polyethylene bag. Mangoes (cvs. Alphonso and Banganapalli) harvested at commercial maturity stage exposed to 100 ppm ethylene gas in ripening chamber for 18 hours could be ripened in 7 and 10 days at RT (23-30°C) and 20°C respectively when compared to 12 and 14 days in non-treated fruits. Mature sapota fruits (cv. Cricket Ball) exposed to 50 ppm ethylene gas (liberated from ethrel solution) for 18 hrs could be ripened uniformly in 5 days at RT (21-26°C) as compared to 8 days in non-treated fruits. Papaya fruits (cv. Taiwan Red Lady) exposed to 50 ppm ethylene gas in the ripening chamber for 18 hrs could be ripened with uniform colour and firmness in 4 days at RT (26- 32°C) and 7 days at 20°C. Post harvest usage of neem leaf extract (5%) or azoxystrobin (0.1%) preceded by pre harvest application of azoxystrobin (0.1%) were most effective in reducing the incidence of fruit rot of Mango. In banana pre harvest application of azoxystrobin (0.1%) followed by post harvest treatment with azoxystrobin (0.1%); pre harvest application of carbendazim (0.1%) followed by post harvest treatment with azoxystrobin (0.1%); pre harvest application of thiophanate methyl (0.1%) followed by post harvest treatment with azoxystrobin (0.1%) prevented anthracnose rot. Among the different fungicides evaluated, pre harvest application of zineb (0.2%) or chlorothalonil (0.2) was most effective for the control of the tomato fruit rots where 92.40% and 92.00% fruits, respectively were free from rots. Value addition Carbonated beverages were prepared from mango, passion fruit and custard apple. Fortification of beverage was done in mango with aonla antioxidants. Passion fruit and guava blended RTS and carrot juice preparation was standardized. Osmotic dehydration of Alphonso and Dashehri slices of mango, Krishna, NA-6, NA-7 and NA-10 of aonla, papaya and pineapple was done. A process to make vitamin C and carotene rich dehydrated slices of variety Robusta of banana using impregnation techniques was developed. Addition of ascorbic acid at 1500 to 2000ppm during extraction of pulp from custard apple, packaging the pulp in polyethylene bags and storage under frozen conditions at -18oC was found useful to prevent browning during frozen storage. Wine quality was found to improve with 50 to 75 percent shade net for Pinot Noir wines and mid season pruning (25th November) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Five strains of Saccharomyces and non-saccharomyces yeasts were identified to have promising enological characteristics with special relevance to the release of bound flavours from grapes. In dehydrated 9 onion, samples packed in PET jar and plastic pallet were found to retain original colour at the end of 6-month storage period. Fifteen selected advanced processing white onion lines (F5) were evaluated in field for their performance. Two varieties for dehydration namely WPL-56, WPL-58, for fermented preservation WPL-433 and WPL 434, and for paste WPL-61 and WPL 65 were found to be suitable. Similarly in tomato ten hybrids were assessed for processing. Silica gel embedded hot air oven drying was carried out for both flowers and foliage. The dried flowers had shelf life of seven months in open storage at RT while the dried fern foliage retained green colour and smooth texture. Input use efficiency In mango var. Arka Anmol (5mx5m) the fruit yield was highest with 50% evaporation replenishment and 75% recommend dose of fertilizer given through drip. In another variety, Lat Sundari, significantly higher fruit number (530/tree) and yield (86 kg/tree) were recorded with organic mulching and 50% evaporation replenishment through daily drip irrigation. In passion fruit, fertigation with 75% recommended dose of fertilizer resulted in higher yields and the second year crop responded only up to 25% evaporation replenishment. In acid lime, yield data indicated an optimum evaporation replenishment rate of 33% and a fertigation level of 59% of the recommended dose of fertilizer. In main as well as ratoon crop of banana (Rasthali and Pathkapoora) maximum yield attributes were recorded due to application of 75% recommended dose of fertilizer. The root intensity and root distribution studies conducted in sapota recorded presence of 33.2 -72.7% of active roots at 40-60cm depth indicating that sapota is a deep-rooted fruit tree and hence droughtresistant. In tomato fertilization prediction equations were formulated and fertigation in hybrid tomato resulted in a saving of fertilizers to the tune of 30 % as compared to conventional practice. Agricultural machinery like a tractor operated low cost raised bed former-cum-transplanter for chilli and other vegetable crops, onion transplanter for flat bed, size grader to grade the fruits based on minimum dimension (thickness in mango and diameter in pomegranate), manually operated pomegranate aril remover and a mechanical totapuri harvester have been redesigned and fabricated. Round the year production/ extending harvesting period In mango, paclobutrazol application increased the fruit yield and its application @ 2.5 g a.i/plant during July 2nd week advanced the harvesting time of Totapuri by 26 days compared to control. In tomato, among the seven F1hybrids evaluated, H-5 and H-7 (102.5 t/ha) out yielded the check Arka Ananya by 28% and 25% respectively. Among the planting systems, 75cm x 40cm spacing recorded significantly higher yield in polyhouse. In rose, evaluation of eleven advanced lines in comparison with commercial check varieties resulted in identification of seven superior lines in terms of quality and yield for further testing. Also nutrient studies indicated that spraying NPK in the ratio of 1:2:2 gave best result. In orchids, biweekly foliar spray of 1:6:1 NPK recorded maximum number of florets per spike, spike length, and flower diameter. In chrysanthemum, breeding for off season flowering resulted in two varieties IIHR-1 (Pink Seedling) and IIHR-2 (Brown seedling) These selections are early/offseason flowering during July month and are suitable for potting and garden purpose and can be exploited for further breeding for earliness. Nutritive value and quality Research on understanding the appropriate mechanism and to device ways and means to over come spongy t issue (ST) problem in mango was continued. Possible reason for absence of ST in alphonso was identified. Fortification of mango beverage with aonla antioxidants helped in reducing loss of antioxidant capacity during storage. In dehydrofrozen mango slices loss of carotenoids was minimized, increased level of flavenoids in bale fruits. Resveratrol, catechin and quercetin content was higher in Bijapur grown grape wines compared to Bangalore region grape wines. Wine storage for two years reduced the antioxidant properties. Crop regulation studies on quality of Sharad and Flame seedless was continued. In tomato total carotenoids and lycopenes were found to increase further from table ripe storage to over ripe storage due to continued accumulation of carotenoids. Different varieties of carrot, onion and amaranthus were also analyzed for their antioxidants properties. Environmental safety in production Experiments on organic production of mango and papaya on soil health (microbial, biochemical and chemical properties) and nutrient status of soil was carried out. In organic cultivation of cauliflower, tomato, and gherkins, the yield was marginally low while in rose and onion yield was at par. Soil respiration was significantly higher in organic treatments and quality parameters of produce showed varying trends. The crops with only chemical fertilizers did not perform well. There was not much variation in pH of soil and yield levels after three years of experimentation on organic vegetable based cropping systems. There was difference in phenols, and antioxidant activities between organic and conventional production system. Organically grown Ashwagandha gave maximum root and berry yield of 287.88 and 112 kg per hectare. In coleus maximum height, branches, plant spread and root yield was observed in organic cultivation. Screening of efficient microbes like phosphate solubilising bacteria, pseudomonas etc were continued. Four heavy metals were analysed in soil, water and vegetables in peri urban situation for which safe limits were worked out. Varietal difference with respect to heavy metal accumulation was observed in amaranthus and radish. In phyto-remediation experiments performance of marigold, chrysanthemum and china aster was assessed. In insect pest management, the use of neem and pongamia volatiles, resulted in 50% mortality in eggs and in first instar caterpillars of DBM. Organic IPM was very Executive summary IIHR Annual Report 2008-09 10 effective against mite in poly-house, in rose and gerbera crops. Many botanical formulation were evaluated for their efficacy in rose. Mulching in rose had beneficial effect on soil quality and its health parameters. Economics of production, marketing and export promotion There is a shift in mango varieties grown in new gardens from traditional Totapuri (Bangalore) to commercial Alphonso varieties in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Market demand and availability of irrigation were major factors in deciding the type of intercrop in the mango gardens. Intercropping helped farmers not only in enhancing farm income but also in increasing the productivity of the main orchard. Export of fresh mangoes from Mumbai port to the USA realized a minimum profit of Rs 12/kg and cost on freight was the major cost accounted nearly for 85 per cent of the total export costs. Low realization of export quality fruits (35 %), inadequate irradiation and VHT facilities and differential MRL for exports were the major constraints in exports of mangoes. Bactrocera caryeae was not detected on late mango varieties of mango in Vellore Tiruvellur and Krishnagiri (Tamil Nadu), Chitoor, Ranga Reddy and Mehboobnagar (Andhra Pradesh), Bangalore and Kolar (Karnataka) upon surveillance. In Goa B. caryeae was maximum from March to June. B. caryeae was not detected in Dharwar implying that this species has not s pread tothe east of Western Ghats. Surveillance of stone weevil on late season/ varieties in mango revealed no infestations in on Banganpalli at Tiruvellur, high infestations on Banganpalli (34%) and Alphonso (60%) at Chittoor and moderate infestations on Alphonso at Vellore (32.8%). In grapes, among factors of production, nutrient application in Maharashtra and labour in Karnataka were identified through cobb-Douglas production function as the major factor influencing the yield and income of grape. In onion, two advanced lines (F6 generations) each in rose onion (Rose-85 and Rose-77), yellow onions (Yl-396 and YL- 403) and multiplier onions (MLP-436 and MLP-437) with promising characters were selected with desired export qualities for export market. The export of big onion from Chennai port to Malaysia and from Mumbai port to Dubai was found profitable with a profit margin of Rs 1300 to 1500/ t to exporters and the major problems of exports were low exportable quality bulbs (upto 40 %), poor infrastructure and non availability of direct vessels. Market integration studies in onion between various markets indicated the strong spatial market integration between Bangalore and Chennai (0.95), Mumbai and Pune (0.943), Kolkota and Delhi (0.86) and Delhi and Chandigarh (0.845) and thus, prices in one market nearly reflected fully in the dependent markets. In rose, different production scenarios suggested that rose grown for direct export resulted in higher net return to the farmers (Rs 3.13) compared to farmers growing rose for domestic markets. Transfer of technology and impact assessment Participatory rural appraisal conducted suggested that intervention of the institute in IPM of fruits and vegetables, water management/fertigation in vegetables, integrated disease management in vegetables and fruits, integrated nutrient management including micronutrient deficiency correction in vegetables and fruits and protected cultivation of vegetable crops, were essential to bridge the existing technological gaps and constraints in production. Institute varieties/hybrids such as Arka Ananya (tomato) and Arka Anand (brinjal), Arka Suvidha and Arka Anoop (French beans), Surya (Papaya), Arka Shwetha and Arka Meghna (chilli) were found superior compared to private company hybrids/varieties in yield and quality attributes. Improvement in firmness and shelf life (8 to 10 days) for better marketability in tomato variety Arka Ananya, uneven fruit shape and size in papaya variety Surya and reduction in shoulder size in chilli variety Arka Shwetha were suggested as major feedback given by the farmers during demonstrations to refine the varieties or hybrids. Documentation of organic farming practices in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh indicated that majority of the farmers used FYM as organic source followed by vermicompost. Most of the farmers expressed the dearth of availability of quality organic inputs. Majority (51%)of them reported no increase in yield and nearly 46 per cent reported higher profits due to lower costs. More than 61 per cent farmers received same price for organic produces in the market. About 69 per cent of farmers reported that the pest and disease is a problem in organic cultivation. Average soil organic content improved from 0.27 to 0.63 percent in red soils and 0.31 to 0.74 per cent in black soils due to organic farming The IPM package with methyl eugenol traps @ 10 traps per hectare for control of mango fruit fly, fetched higher returns to the farmers in Gujarat as the infestation and damage to the fruits was lower. Farmers who used traps realized 30-35 % higher price for fruits of Alphonso and Kesar varieties compared to those who did not use the traps. Eighteen trainings were conducted during the period for officers of dvelopmental department. Two trainings were exclusively conducted for the project executives of prasar bharti. Innovative extension methodologies like farmers field school and development of techno agents were found to be highly useful and effective for dissemination of technologies generated at the institute. Integrated pest management (92.77 %), organic farming in horticulture crops (88.94%) and diagnosis of nutrient disorder (83.97%) were identified as the major training needs by the developmental officers belonging to various states of India. An e-book on tomato cultivation and carnation cultivation was developed which includes information on varieties, cultivation practices for open and greenhouse production, pest and disease management, post harvest technologies etc. The software is user-friendly, comprehensive, and easyto- navigate. 11 Human resource development With a view to improve capacity building by way of exposure to high tech scientific methods, training and visits, many scientists were deputed to various national and international organizations. Post graduate education and training has been one of the major human resource development activities of the Institute. In the current year, the Institute established MOU’s with two more universities viz., Kuvempu University, Shimoga and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Institute, Hyderabad to facilitate the staff members of the Institute to pursue their higher studies. As part of this activity, three scientists were recognized as faculty members of University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore during this year. Seven Ph.D and four M.Sc degrees were awarded under the guidance of scientists. In addition 98 students received short-term project training at the Institute in various disciplines in partial fulfilment of their post-graduate degree requirement. Revenue generation The Institute has been involved in revenue generation through consultancy services, training, sale of seed and planting material including mushroom spawn, sale of general farm produce, sale of various institute technologies, publications and technological products through Agricultural Technology Informaton centre. During the year, an amount of Rs 13423833 was generated as revenue
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/226
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